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Studying: Reproductive Morphology-> fruit

First, let’s start with

Fruit Parts

  • Carpel- the single member of a compound pistil
  • Carpel wall- the portion of the ovary that surrounds the locale
    • Locule- the chamber within the ovary that contains the seeds
    • Endocarp- the part of the carpel wall that encloses the locule
      • Endo=inner
    • Mesocarp- the portion of the carpel wall that is between the endocarp and exocarp
      • This is the middle portion and is fleshy.
      • Meso=middle
    • Exocarp- the outermost layer of the carpel wall
      • Exo=outside

Fruit types

  • Dry- a fruit that lacks moisture at maturity
    • Example: nuts
    • Dehiscent- a fruit that opens to release seeds once they are fully mature on their own.
      • For example: walnuts and pecans
      • Follicle- opens along one suture or seem
        • Example: milkweed
      • Legume- opens along two sutures
        • Example: peanuts and snap peas
      • Silique- opens along two sutures but the septum remains
        • For example: oleander
      • Capsule- opens along three or more sutures
        • For example: crape Myrtle
        • Locucidal- sutures forms within the locule
        • Septacidal- a structure forms along the septum
        • Porocidal- forms as pores at the top of each locule
    • Indehiscent- a fruit that does not open to release the seed on it’s own and requires help.
      • For example: sunflower
      • Achene- one sided pericarp
        • For example: sunflower
        • Samara- winged achene
        • For example: maple trees and ash trees
      • Nut- one sided fruit, entire pericarp is stony
        • For example: acorn
  • Fleshy- a fruit that contains moisture at maturity
    • Berry- entire pericarp is fleshy
      • Multiple seeds in flesh
      • For example: bananas, papayas and blue berries
    • Drupe- endocarp is stony
      • Has pits
      • For example: peaches, plums and prunes
    • Hesperidium- exocarp is leathery
      • Exclusively citrus
      • For example: mandarins, oranges, lemons and limes
    • Accessory Fruits- are fruits forked from structures other than the ovary
      • Pepo- fruit is formed by joining of the ovary with the epidermis
        • For example: gourds, cucumbers, watermelons, melons and cantaloupe
      • Pome- fruit formed from the fusion of the ovary with the hypanthium
        • For example: apple
        • Pomme means Apple in french
    • Aggregate fruits- fruits that formed from the fusion of multiple pistils within a single flower
      • For example: blackberries and raspberries
    • Multiple fruits- fruits formed from the fusion of an inflorescence
      • Cluster of flowers
      • For example: pineapple

Well here we go. Noting until class starts… I’m going to keep going.

Until next time