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Studying: Reproductive Morphology-> Flower Parts

So first we should know that reproductive morphology is talking about what it takes to sexually reproduce. This includes the flowers, fruits and seeds.

Right now we’re strictly talking about the flower parts

Pedicel- the stem that supports a single flower

Receptacle- the tip of the pedicel. This is where all floral whorls will originate.

Steril whorls

  • Sepals- the outer whorl of the flower. It’s job is to protect the developing bud of the flower and is usually green and leaf like.
    • Calyx- the sepals collectively
  • Petals- the whorl of the flower, they’re usually colorful
    • Corolla- the petals collectively
  • Perianth- the Calyx and Corolla collectively
  • Tepals- sepals and petals that are similar is appearance

Fertile Whorls

  • Stamen- the pollen producing structure of the flower. This part consists of an anther and a filament.
    • Filament- a slender stem-like structure that supports the anther
    • Anther- the organ that produces pollen
  • Androecium- the stamen collectively
  • Pistil- the ovulr producing structure of the flower, consists of a stigma, style and ovary
    • Stigma- the flattened portion of the pistil where the pollen grain is received
    • Style- the portion of the pistil that connects the stigma to the ovary
  • Ovary- the enlarged portion of the pistil where ovules are produced. This will mature into a fruit if pollinated.
  • Carpel- a single segment of the pistil that contains a stigma, style and ovary

Gynoecium- the pistils collectively

Superior ovary- a flower with an ovary positioned above the sepals. For example: an artichoke

Inferior ovary- a flower with an ovary positioned below the sepals. For example: a rose

Flower shapes

Most flowers can be described as having flowers with gamopetalous corollas.

  • Polypetalous- petals are separate and not connected
  • Gamopetalous- petals are fused
    • Examples: morning glory and balloon flower
  • Actinomorphic- several lines of symmetry
  • Zygomorphic- has only one line of symmetry
    • Example: snap dragons and pansies
  • Irregular- no lines of symmetry
    • Example: Canna
  • Rotate- wheel shaped
    • Circular
    • Example: cherry blossom
  • Campanulate- bell shaped
  • Funnelform- trumpet shaped
  • Urceolate- urn shaped
    • Has a smaller opening than campanulate
  • Ligulate- strap shaped
    • Examples: aster family
  • Bilabiate- two lipped
  • Papilionaceous- butterfly shaped
    • Example: Orchid

Onward to the next part to study…

Studying: Leaf Parts

Yeah, that’s right. I am studying for finals still. You’re welcome. Enjoy the cool pictures with the vocabulary.

Leaf parts

  • Blade (Lamina)- the flattened part of the leaf
  • Petiole- the stalk supporting the blade
  • Stipules- parts located at the base of a leaf that joins them stem

Arrangement or Phyllotaxy of the leaf

  • Alternate- one leaf per node
  • Opposite- two leaves per node
  • Whorled- more than two leaves per node

Composition of the leaf

  • Simple- blade has one segment
  • Compound- blade is divided and has more than one segment
  • Leaflets- separate segments of a compound leaf
  • Pinnately Compound- leaflets that are along a primary rachis
  • Bipinnately Compound- leaflets that have been divided twice
  • Tripinnately Compound- leaflets that have been divided three times
  • Palmately Compound- leaflets radiate from a central point

Shape of the Leaf

  • Elliptic- leaf blade is widest in the middle
    • Football shaped
  • Ovate- the leaf is widest at or near the base
    • Egg shaped
  • Lanceolate- leaf is several times longer than wide but is widest near it’s base
    • Lance shaped
  • Obovate- leaf blade is widest near the apex
    • Reverse egg shape


  • The Margin is the side of the leaf
    • Entire- smooth margin on the leaf
    • Dentate- toothed margin on the leaf
    • Serrate- saw toothed


  • Acute- apex is from the straight sides
  • Acuminate- base is formed from concave-ly curved sides
  • Obtuse- with a rounded apex


  • Acute- base is formed from straight sides
  • Acuminate- base is formed from concave-ly curved sides
  • Obtuse- rounded apex
  • Oblique- asymmetrical

Until next time

Studying: Stems

Alright so these are vocabulary terms I have to learn for my final.

Stolon- an above ground horizontal stem

Rhizome- a below ground horizontal stem

Trendil- a twining stem

Node- the swollen portion of a stem associated with buds

Internode- the portion of the stem between the nodes

Lenticel- spongy area in the cork surfaces of stems

Terminal bud- bud found at the end of a branch or stem

Lateral bud- a bud found along the side of a branch or stem

Woooo. I have got to start using these terms more when referring to things so that I sound better educated.